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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
No solids analysis references
No surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
Gases/aerosols analysis references

λ (nm)
LOD not reported /

Using TRACERTM 2100 instrument, Nd:YAG 1064 nm, 195 mJ pulse energy, 10 Hz PRF, <7 ns pulse width. Czerny-Turner spectrograph, 0.2 nm resolution, ICCD detector. Investigation of ore containing P, Al, Mg, Ca, Si.

S. Rosenwasser, G. Asimellis, B. Bromley, R. Hazlett, J. Martin, T. Pearce and A. Zigler. Development of a method for automated quantitative analysis of ores using LIBS. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 707-714.

558.87 /
not applicable
200 ppm /
8 - 15%
Powdered leaf samples fixed on tape. Nd:YAG laser (1064nm), 0.5m spectrograph & ICCD detector. Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Zn.
Q. Sun, M. Tran, B.W. Smith and J.D. Winefordner. Direct determination of P, Al, Ca, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mg and Fe in plant materials by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc., 44, (1999), 164-170.
428.3 / not applicable
0.020 ppm
Droplets of aqueous solution formed using piezoelectric nozzle. Nd:YAG laser (1064nm), Paschen-Runge spectrometer & PM tubes.
C. Janzen, R. Fleige, R. Noll, H. Schwenke, W. Lahmann, J. Knoth, P. Beaven, E. Jantzen, A. Oest and P. Koke. Analysis of small droplets with a new detector for liquid chromatography based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 60, (2005), 993-1001.
393.37 / not applicable
1 ppm
 To be added shortly
P. Yaroshchyk, R.J.S. Morrison and B.L. Chadwick. Dual beam spectrometer using laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 75, (2004),  5050-5052.
10 ppm (estimated)
CaCO3 in water
Bulk aqueous solution probed with Nd:YAG laser (1064nm), spectrometer & ICCD. (Al, Li & Na also investigated; no LOD quoted)
A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'aglio and O. De Pascale. Single pulse-laser induced
breakdown spectroscopy in aqueous solution. Appl. Phys. A, 79, (2004), 1035-1038.
422.7 / not applicable
0.1 / 0.4 mmol/l (ns / fs LIBS) / not reported
CaCl2 in water,
Water jet produced via nozzle. Comparison of ns and fs laser sources for analysing biological samples: Nd:YAG (355nm, 6ns) & Ti:sapphire (790nm, 30fs). Spectrograph & ICCD camera. High degree of spatial resolution. Ablation of biological material (sunflower seeds) also studied.
A. Assion, M.  Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F.  Mayorov, C.  Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U.
Kutschera and T. Baumert. Femtosecond laser-induced-breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution. Appl. Phys. B, 77, (2003), 391-397.
393.4, 396.8 / not applicable
0.003 ppm
/ RSD not reported
ArF laser (193nm), efficient plasma formation due to resonant absorption in water. 0.5m spectrograph & ICCD. Ba, Ca, Na & Pb.
K.M. Lo, and N.H. Cheung. ArF laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for part-
per-billion analysis of metal ions in aqueous solutions. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 682-688.
422.7 / not applicable
0.09 ppm / RSD not reported
Metal ions dissolved in ultra-pure water. Nd:YAG laser (532nm). 0.275m Czerny-Turner spectrograph & ICCD. Ba, Ca, Eu & Pb.
T. Bundschuh, J.I. Yun and R. Knopp. Determination of size, concentration and elemental composition of colloids with laser-induced breakdown detection/spectroscopy (LIBD/S). Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 371, (2001). 1063-1069.
422.6 / not applicable
Fe ore slurry

Laser type not stated, ablation energy 140 mJ per pulse, 2 Hz PRF, focussed by a 50 cm focal length lens. Correlation curves obtained for intensity ratio vs chemical analysis of sample.

L. Barrette and S. Turmel. On-line iron-ore slurry monitoring for real-time process control of pellet making processes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: graphitic vs. total carbon detection. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 715-723.

393.37 /
Fe (395.64)
0.6 ppm /
Typically 2%
Various experimental configurations incl. water jet. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Tc, U
O. Samek, D.C.S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S.V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H.H. Telle and J. Young. (2000). Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples. Opt. Eng., 39, (2000), 2248-2262.
422.67 /
Hβ, Hγ, Cu (λ?)
0.01 ppm /
RSD not reported
Liquid evaporated on graphite
Ar gas atmosphere at 76 Torr. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb.
R.L. Van der Wal, T.M. Ticich, J.R. West and P.A. Householder. Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1226-1236.
393.37, 396.85 / not applicable
0.13 ppm / not reported
Metal salts dissolved in ultra-pure water. Dye laser (500nm). 0.275m polychromator & IPDA. Ba, Ca, Cd, Li, Na & Pb.
R. Knopp, F.J. Scherbaum and J.I. Kim. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) as an analytical tool for the detection of metal ions in aqueous solution. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 355, (1996), 16-20.
422.7 / not applicable
0.4 ppm /
Isolated droplet sample introduction system. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Li, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, Al. PMT detector.
H.A. Archontaki and  S.R. Crouch. Evaluation of an isolated droplet sample introduction system for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 42, (1988), 741-746.
393.37 /
not applicable
0.8 ppm /
4 – 8%
Organic solvents
RSS (single pulse) & RSP (double pulse). Plasma formed within the liquid. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Be, Mg, Ca, B, Al. PMT detector.
D.A. Cremers, L.J. Radziemski and T.R. Loree. Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark. Appl. Spectrosc,. 38, (1984), 721-729.
393.37 /
not applicable
30 fg
Used PCA of atomic emission lines to distinguish biological agent simulants from natural aerosols. Nd:YAG (1064nm), simultaneous use of UV/Vis and NIR spectrometers. Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na & P.
J.D. Hybl, G.A. Lithgow and S.G. Buckley. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and classification of biological aerosols. Appl. Spectrosc., 57, (2003), 1207-1215.
0.5 fg / RSD not reported
Particle in air
PM10-filtered ambient air sampling system. Nd:YAG laser (1064nm), 0.275m spectrometer & ICCD array. Ca, Mg & Na.
J.E. Carranza, B.T. Fisher, G.D. Yoder and D.W. Hahn. On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001), 851-864.
393.37, 396.85 / not applicable
3 fg / RSD not reported
N2 gas
 Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.25 m focal length sprctrograph, gratings 1200 or 2400 line/mm. ICCD detector. Ca, Cr and Mg.
D.W. Hahn and M.M. Lunden. Detection and analysis of aerosol particles by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Aerosol Sci. Technol.,  33, (2000), 30-48.
393.66, 396.85 / not applicable
2.9 ng / RSD not reported
Particle in Xe COD
 Continuous optical discharge (COD) initiated by Q-switched Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser and maintained by cw CO2 (10.6 mm) laser. Scanning monochomator, 0.5 m focal length, gratings 1200 and 3600 line/mm. Photomultiplier tube detector. Laser ablation of solids into COD plasma. Cl, O, Na, Li and Ca.
D.A. Cremers, F.L. Archuleta and R.J. Martinez. Evaluation of the continuous optical discharge for spectrochemical analysis. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  40, (1985), 665-679.
393.37 / not applicable